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INTRODUCTORY  ESSAY.                                  55
peninsula and Eastern Bengal. The 'Flora Javae' was com-
menced in 1828, and the 'Rumphia' in 1835, each of which
consists of several foHo volumes, illustrated with a profusion
of admirable coloured plates, in many cases accompanied by
anatomical details of rare excellence; these are amongst the
most splendid and learned botanical works of the age, and
have placed their author high in the rank of botanists. In
them many of the defective parts of the Bijdragen are worked
up and illustrated, and in the e Museum Botanicum Lugduno-
Batavum/ an octavo periodical, with outline plates, containing
admirable analyses, commenced in 1852, we have careful de-
scriptions of more of these, and of still other genera and spe-
cies of Java, Borneo, Molucca, and Japan plants.
The Museum at Leyden is a rich store of botanical mate-
rials, which have been accumulating for many years from all
the- Dutch possessions in the east and west; and it is exceed-
ingly to be regretted, for the sake of science, and the honour
of the Dutch Government, which has patronized botany to
an extent unsurpassed by any other country, that the enor-
mous piles of duplicates which they possess should be with-
held from the scientific iustitutions of Europe and America.
The beautiful folio volume of M. Korthals, ' Kruidkunde/
or Botany of the Dutch East Indian possessions, is another
monument of the munificence of the Dutch Government. It
contains seventy coloured plates, illustrating, amongst other
natural orders, that of Nepenthacese.
The botanical Professors De Vriese, of Leyden, and Miquel
of Amsterdam, have laboured long and successfully in Indian
botany, and we owe to their industry and energy many im-
portant memoirs; and to their liberality most valuable her-
baria, procured in some instances at their own cost. M, Mi-
queFs monographs of the difficult orders Piperacese and Fici
are standard works of essential service to us as Indian bota-
nists, though we do not concur in the author's limitations of
genera. M. Miquel has also named the Canara and Nilghiri
collections distributed by Hohenacker; but any approach to